As I have mentioned in a couple of previous posts, I am working on revision for a manuscript
examining the statistical properties of the function `ratebytree`

.

So far, to directly or indirectly address the reviewer & editor criticisms, I have:

1) Added the option of comparing parameters under other evolutionary models such as
*OU* and *EB*
(1,
2).

2) Added the option of comparing the rate of discrete character evolution under M*k*
models of various flavors
(1,
2).

3) Added the calcuation of standard errors and a `posthoc`

method for the
object class
(1,
2).

In addition, the editor requested that we include an empirical example. We are using the
method in another *in prep.* study in which we (among other things) compare the rate of
niche evolution among clades, but I thought I'd go back a few years and find another nice
example.

After some searching, I settled on the relatively simple case of comparing the rate of body size & shape evolution between two lizard clades: the North American iguanian subfamily of Phrynosomatinae, and the diverse South American clade Liolaemidae.

Here are photos of each from Wikipedia to color up the post:

I am using the data of Harmon et al. (2010). The data is freely distributed through Data Dryad, so anyone who likes can download the files & follow along.

Both are relatively species rich lizard families or subfamilies - although our trees & data in each case only contain a relatively small number of taxa: 70 & 67 species, respectively.

I have also re-used the total tree ages of Harmon et al. - although the seemed a little unrealistic: 75 & 74 million years, respectively. No matter - our method is only sensitive to relative age, so in this case we are merely assuming that the two clades have approximately the same total age.

First, I will compare body size (SVL) evolution between the two groups.

Load packages:

```
library(phytools)
library(geiger)
```

These are the ages used in Harmon et al.:

```
ages<-setNames(c(75,74),c("phryn","liol"))
ages
```

```
## phryn liol
## 75 74
```

```
## a simple function to rescale
rescaleTree<-function(t,d){
h<-max(nodeHeights(t))
t$edge.length<-t$edge.length/h*d
t
}
```

Now start with Phrynosomatinae:

```
phryn.tree<-read.tree("phrynosomatpl.phy")
phryn.tree<-rescaleTree(phryn.tree,ages["phryn"]/100)
```

Here I have chosen to rescale both trees to total depth in 100s of millions of years. This just makes our parameter values 100× larger & helps with optimization - but it does not affect the model fit of our different models.

```
phryn.data<-read.csv("iguanids.csv",row.names=1,header=TRUE,
na.string=".")
chk<-name.check(phryn.tree,phryn.data)
chk
```

```
## $tree_not_data
## character(0)
##
## $data_not_tree
## [1] "amcris" "anacut" "anaen" "anahl" "analin" "analli"
## [7] "anallog" "analut" "anang" "anarg" "anbah" "anbarh"
## [13] "anbart" "anbima" "anbrem" "anbrun" "ancent" "anchlo"
## [19] "anchri" "ancoel" "ancons" "ancrist" "ancuv" "ancyb"
## [25] "andist" "aneque" "anever" "anferr" "angarm" "angrah"
## [31] "angris" "angund" "anhomo" "aninsol" "anisol" "anjub"
## [37] "ankrug" "anleach" "anline" "anlon" "anlong" "anlontib"
## [43] "anloy" "anluce" "anlucs" "anluteo" "anmarm" "anmayn"
## [49] "anmest" "anmone" "annobl" "anoccu" "anolss" "anopal"
## [55] "anophio" "anpater" "anpogu" "anponc" "anporc" "anpulch"
## [61] "anpum" "anrich" "anroque" "ansagr" "ansemil" "ansing"
## [67] "anstra" "anstrat" "anstrint" "anvalen" "anvanid" "anverm"
## [73] "anwatt" "basbas" "basgal" "basplum" "basvitt" "brafas"
## [79] "chamad" "cmbarbo" "cmporc" "consub" "corcris" "corhern"
## [85] "corperc" "crotcol" "ctenads" "ctspect" "ctssim" "cycnub"
## [91] "dipalto" "dipdar" "dipsdor" "ensleec" "enylat" "gamwis"
## [97] "hopspin" "igig" "laelong" "laeserr" "leabell" "leacat"
## [103] "leiocar" "leiopers" "leioschr" "lioaba" "lioalb" "lioalt"
## [109] "lioand" "lioaud" "liobel" "liobib" "liobit" "liobuer"
## [115] "liocanq" "liochac" "liochil" "liocoer" "liocuy" "liodar"
## [121] "liodono" "liodorb" "lioelong" "liofama" "liofitz" "liofus"
## [127] "liograc" "liograv" "liohuac" "lioirr" "lioking" "liokosl"
## [133] "liokrie" "liolaur" "liolem" "liolep" "lioline" "liolutz"
## [139] "liomelan" "liomont" "liomult" "liomumc" "lionig" "lionitid"
## [145] "lionvr" "lioocci" "lioolon" "lioorna" "liopaul" "liopetro"
## [151] "liopict" "lioplat" "liopoly" "liopseud" "lioquil" "liorioj"
## [157] "liorober" "lioroth" "lioruib" "liosalin" "lioscap" "lioschr"
## [163] "liotenu" "liowalk" "liowieg" "lioxant" "liozap" "morann"
## [169] "opcuv" "plicplic" "poacut" "pomarm" "prissca" "pympal"
## [175] "pympun" "pymsom" "pymzap" "sauobes" "stang" "stapur"
## [181] "stazur" "stboet" "stcad" "stchot" "stcrass" "stcupr"
## [187] "stdoell" "stemp" "steune" "stfest" "stfimb" "stguen"
## [193] "sthume" "stimit" "stirid" "stlate" "stlimi" "stmelano"
## [199] "stocho" "storien" "storna" "stperc" "stpuyan" "strhodo"
## [205] "strosei" "ststig" "stvari" "troeth" "trospin" "uphvaut"
## [211] "uraflav" "urnsup"
```

This tells us that we have some species in our data not in the tree, but not the converse. Let's just remove these from our dataset:

```
phryn.data<-phryn.data[phryn.tree$tip.label,]
phryn.size<-log(as.matrix(phryn.data)[,1]) ## size on a log scale.
```

Next, Liolaemidae:

```
liol.tree<-read.tree("liolaeminipl.phy")
liol.tree<-rescaleTree(liol.tree,ages["liol"]/100)
liol.data<-read.csv("iguanids.csv",row.names=1,header=TRUE,
na.string=".")
chk<-name.check(liol.tree,liol.data)
chk
```

```
## $tree_not_data
## character(0)
##
## $data_not_tree
## [1] "amcris" "anacut" "anaen" "anahl" "analin" "analli"
## [7] "anallog" "analut" "anang" "anarg" "anbah" "anbarh"
## [13] "anbart" "anbima" "anbrem" "anbrun" "ancent" "anchlo"
## [19] "anchri" "ancoel" "ancons" "ancrist" "ancuv" "ancyb"
## [25] "andist" "aneque" "anever" "anferr" "angarm" "angrah"
## [31] "angris" "angund" "anhomo" "aninsol" "anisol" "anjub"
## [37] "ankrug" "anleach" "anline" "anlon" "anlong" "anlontib"
## [43] "anloy" "anluce" "anlucs" "anluteo" "anmarm" "anmayn"
## [49] "anmest" "anmone" "annobl" "anoccu" "anolss" "anopal"
## [55] "anophio" "anpater" "anpogu" "anponc" "anporc" "anpulch"
## [61] "anpum" "anrich" "anroque" "ansagr" "ansemil" "ansing"
## [67] "anstra" "anstrat" "anstrint" "anvalen" "anvanid" "anverm"
## [73] "anwatt" "basbas" "basgal" "basplum" "basvitt" "brafas"
## [79] "calldrac" "chamad" "cmbarbo" "cmporc" "consub" "cophtex"
## [85] "corcris" "corhern" "corperc" "crotcol" "ctspect" "ctssim"
## [91] "cycnub" "dipalto" "dipdar" "dipsdor" "ensleec" "enylat"
## [97] "gamwis" "hollac" "holmac" "holprop" "hopspin" "igig"
## [103] "laelong" "laeserr" "leabell" "leacat" "leiocar" "leiopers"
## [109] "leioschr" "morann" "opcuv" "pettha" "phyasio" "phycora"
## [115] "phycorn" "phydoug" "phyhern" "phymcl" "phymod" "phyorb"
## [121] "phyplat" "physola" "phytau" "plicplic" "poacut" "pomarm"
## [127] "prissca" "satang" "sauobes" "scadl" "scbic" "sccar"
## [133] "sccau" "scchry" "scclar" "sccouc" "sccyan" "scform"
## [139] "scgadov" "scgrac" "scgram" "schorr" "schuns" "scjala"
## [145] "scjarr" "sclund" "scmac" "scmag" "scmala" "scmerr"
## [151] "scmucr" "scoccid" "scocho" "scoliv" "scorcu" "scorn"
## [157] "scpar" "scpict" "scpoin" "scpyro" "scscal" "scsini"
## [163] "scsmar" "scspin" "scsquam" "scteap" "sctorq" "scund"
## [169] "scutif" "scvari" "scvirg" "scwood" "sczost" "stang"
## [175] "stapur" "stazur" "stboet" "stcad" "stchot" "stcrass"
## [181] "stcupr" "stdoell" "stemp" "steune" "stfest" "stfimb"
## [187] "stguen" "sthume" "stimit" "stirid" "stlate" "stlimi"
## [193] "stmelano" "stocho" "storien" "storna" "stperc" "stpuyan"
## [199] "strhodo" "strosei" "ststig" "stvari" "troeth" "trospin"
## [205] "umaino" "umascop" "uphvaut" "uraflav" "urnsup" "urograc"
## [211] "uromic" "uronigr" "uroorn" "utapalm" "utastan"
```

```
liol.data<-liol.data[liol.tree$tip.label,]
liol.size<-log(as.matrix(liol.data)[,1])
```

Let's visualize our data:

```
par(mfrow=c(1,2))
phenogram(phryn.tree,phryn.size,spread.cost=c(1,0),ftype="i",fsize=0.6,
ylab="log(SVL)",xlab="time my x 100",col="lightblue",
ylim=range(c(phryn.size,liol.size)))
```

```
## Optimizing the positions of the tip labels...
```

```
title(main="a) Phrynosomatinae body size",cex.main=1.1)
labels<-setNames(seq(min(c(phryn.size,liol.size)),max(c(phryn.size,liol.size)),
by=diff(range(c(phryn.size,liol.size)))/(Ntip(liol.tree)-1)),
names(sort(liol.size)))
phenogram(liol.tree,liol.size,spread.cost=c(1,0),ftype="i",fsize=0.6,
ylab="log(SVL)",xlab="time my x 100",col="lightgreen",
ylim=range(c(phryn.size,liol.size)),
label.pos=labels)
```

```
## Optimizing the positions of the tip labels...
```

```
title(main="b) Liolaemidae body size",cex.main=1.1)
```

Now we can fit our model:

```
fit.size<-ratebytree(c(phryn.tree,liol.tree),list(phryn.size,
liol.size))
fit.size
```

```
## ML common-rate model:
## s^2 a[1] a[2] k logL
## value 0.2613 4.1772 4.2621 3 -4.8496
## SE 0.0316 0.1478 0.2394
##
## ML multi-rate model:
## s^2[1] s^2[2] a[1] a[2] k logL
## value 0.1911 0.3346 4.1772 4.2621 4 -2.1877
## SE 0.0323 0.0578 0.1264 0.2709
##
## Likelihood ratio: 5.3238
## P-value (based on X^2): 0.021
##
## R thinks it has found the ML solution.
```

```
posthoc(fit.size)
```

```
##
## Post-hoc test for "BM" model.
## (Comparison is of estimated values of sigma^2.)
##
## t df P
## tree1 vs. 2 -2.167 101.0276 0.0326
##
## P-values adjusted using method="none".
```

This tells us that clade #2, Liolaemidae, has about a 1.5-fold higher rate of body size evolution than does clade #1, the phrynosomatines, and that this difference is highly significant.

Note that this occurs *even though* for our taxa the range of variation is slightly *greater*
in phrynosomatines than in Liolaemidae. How come? Most likely it is because greater evolutionary
changes have occurred between close relatives in Liolaemidae than in phrynosomatines.

Next, on to body *shape*. For body shape I decided to use a slightly different approach
than in Harmon et al. in that I decided to first compute a mean (phylogenetic) eigenstructure for the
different traits of each group, and then compute scores in this space, rather than in separate
spaces as in Harmon et al. This (I think) makes “shape” for the two different clades more
directly comparable - although it is only possible here because the traits are precisely the
same. (Harmon et al. also compared shape evolution in clades measured for different traits.)

One complication that we have to deal with is that some characters for some taxa are missing. I just decided to remove these from the datasets (and trees):

```
taxa.na<-names(which(apply(phryn.data,1,function(x) any(is.na(x)))))
taxa.na
```

```
## [1] "sclund" "scpar" "sccouc"
```

```
phryn.tree<-drop.tip(phryn.tree,taxa.na)
phryn.data<-phryn.data[phryn.tree$tip.label,]
pca.phryn<-phyl.pca(phryn.tree,log(phryn.data))
pca.phryn
```

```
## Phylogenetic pca
## Standard deviations:
## PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
## 0.90696599 0.34633365 0.09262882 0.07084188
## Loads:
## PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
## SVL -0.9572559 -0.2344029 0.167252040 0.02726240
## FIXTL -0.8816620 0.4717591 -0.002422735 -0.01046589
## TAL -0.9396173 -0.3187826 -0.057246707 -0.11054350
## TLL -0.9647890 -0.2130534 -0.109288095 0.10884222
```

```
taxa.na<-names(which(apply(liol.data,1,function(x) any(is.na(x)))))
taxa.na
```

```
## [1] "lionitid" "liofus" "liozap" "liopaul" "liolep" "liocoer"
```

```
liol.tree<-drop.tip(liol.tree,taxa.na)
liol.data<-liol.data[liol.tree$tip.label,]
pca.liol<-phyl.pca(liol.tree,log(liol.data))
pca.liol
```

```
## Phylogenetic pca
## Standard deviations:
## PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
## 1.08598168 0.33608157 0.20326448 0.09855278
## Loads:
## PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
## SVL -0.9545595 -0.1419970 0.25571368 -0.0571277337
## FIXTL -0.9042343 0.4258316 -0.03205649 -0.0003164605
## TAL -0.9364986 -0.2411494 -0.24315585 -0.0754485503
## TLL -0.9666380 -0.1976977 -0.01222497 0.1624102850
```

Now, I'll compute the mean eigenstructure across the two datasets:

```
Evec<-(pca.liol$Evec+pca.phryn$Evec)/2
```

Finally, I can compute scores in this new space. Shape with be scores on PCA 2 as we have not removed size from this analysis:

```
phryn.shape<-((as.matrix(log(phryn.data))-matrix(1,nrow(phryn.data),1)%*%
t(phyl.vcv(as.matrix(log(phryn.data)),vcv(phryn.tree),1)$alpha))%*%
Evec)[,2]
liol.shape<-((as.matrix(log(liol.data))-matrix(1,nrow(liol.data),1)%*%
t(phyl.vcv(as.matrix(log(liol.data)),vcv(liol.tree),1)$alpha))%*%
Evec)[,2]
```

Now, we can compare the rates for our two clades!

```
fit.shape<-ratebytree(c(phryn.tree,liol.tree),list(phryn.shape,
liol.shape))
fit.shape
```

```
## ML common-rate model:
## s^2 a[1] a[2] k logL
## value 0.1148 0 0 3 47.4324
## SE 0.0144 0.0993 0.1588
##
## ML multi-rate model:
## s^2[1] s^2[2] a[1] a[2] k logL
## value 0.1181 0.1112 0 0 4 47.4611
## SE 0.0204 0.0201 0.1007 0.1563
##
## Likelihood ratio: 0.0574
## P-value (based on X^2): 0.8106
##
## R thinks it has found the ML solution.
```

```
posthoc(fit.shape)
```

```
##
## Post-hoc test for "BM" model.
## (Comparison is of estimated values of sigma^2.)
##
## t df P
## tree1 vs. 2 0.2399 123.1659 0.8108
##
## P-values adjusted using method="none".
```

Unlike size, shape shows *no* evidence for a difference in rate between clades.

Dear dr. Revell,

ReplyDeleteI have also SVL data of around 160 lacertid lizards. If you're interested?

You can find the data as supplementary data for following article:

Baeckens, S., Edwards, S., Huyghe, K. & Van Damme, R. (2015) Chemical signalling in lizards: an interspecific comparison of femoral pore numbers in Lacertidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114, 44–57.

I can provide you the Bayesian tree as wel.

Let me know if you're interested:

Simon Baeckens

simon.baeckens@fas.harvard.edu

That would be excellent!

DeleteGreat! I'll email the files in a sec.

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